What is Striga?

Witchweeds are seen as a bright-green stems and leaves and small, colorful and attractive flowers.[2] They are obligate hemiparasites of roots and need a living host for germination and initial development, though they could then survive independently. Also check thc vape discreet shipping

The genus is classified in the family Orobanchaceae, although older classifications place it in the Scrophulariaceae.

The quantity of species is uncertain, but may exceed 40 by some counts.

Although most species of Striga aren’t pathogens that affect human agriculture, some species have devastating effects after crops, particularly those planted by subsistence farmers.[7] Crops mostly influenced are corn, sorghum, rice and sugarcane.[2][8] Three species cause the most damage: Striga asiatica, S. gesnerioides, and S. hermonthica.

Witchweed parasitizes maize, millet, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, legumes, and a number of weedy grasses.[9] It truly is with the capacity of drastically reducing yields, occasionally wiping out the complete crop.

Host plant symptoms, such as stunting, wilting, and chlorosis, act like those seen from extreme drought damage, nutrient deficiency, and vascular disease.

Each plant has been the capacity of making between 90,000[11] and 500,000 seeds, which might remain viable in the soil for over a decade.[12] Most seeds produced aren’t viable. An total gross annual plant, witchweed overwinters in the seed stage. Its seeds germinate in the existence of host root exudate, and develop haustoria which penetrate host root cells.[2] Host root exudate contain strigolactones, signaling molecules that promote striga seed germination.[13] A bell-like swelling forms where the parasitic roots put on the roots of the host. The pathogen develops underground, where it might spend another four to seven weeks before emergence, when it rapidly flowers and produces seeds. Witchweed seeds spread readily via wind and water, and in soil via animal vectors. The principle approach to dispersal, however, is through human activity, through machinery, tools, and clothing.

Once germination is stimulated, the Striga seed sends out a brief root to probe the soil for the host root. The original root secretes an oxidizing enzyme that digests the host root surface, releasing quinones.[14] If the quinone product reaches the correct concentrations, a haustorium will establish from the initial root. The haustorium grows toward the host root until it generates contact with the primary surface, establishing parasitic contact in relatively short order. Within 12 hours of initial haustorium growth, the haustorium recognizes the host root and commences rapid cell division and elongation.[15] The haustorium forms a wedge shape and uses mechanical force and chemical digestion to penetrate the host root, pushing the host cells looked after.[15][16] Within 48-72 hours, the haustorium has penetrated the host root cortex.[15] Finger-like structures on the haustorium, called oscula (from Latin osculum, “little mouth”) penetrate the host xylem through pits in the membrane.[16] The oscula then swell to secure their position within the xylem membrane. Striga sieve tubes develop alongside the oscula. Shortly after the host xylem is penetrated, Striga sieve tubes develop and approach the host phloem within eight cells.[17][18] This eight cell layer permits nonspecific nutrient transport from the host to the Striga seedling.[17][18] Within a day after tapping the host xylem and phloem, the Striga cotyledons emerge from the seed.